In the course of the time a large number of insecticides with specific characteristics have been developed. These active agents differ essentially through:
- Ability of decontamination
- Chemical group affiliation
- Compatibility to materials
- Economical obligations (registration costs/quantity/attainable price)
- Long-term effect
- Mode of action and/or impact on the target
- Resistance potential
- Specific effect
To achieve a specific target, these topics have to be considered towards each other carefully and the national and/or international laws and regulations, which regulate completely almost all ranges of pest control, must be kept.
BTI – BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISRAELIENIS
BTI is a biogenous insecticide. This biological preparation is bred millionfold and can be manufactured in the laboratory. BTI is a well established active agent against mosquitoes and highly effective. It is applied into the water living environment of the mosquito larvae. Anopheles larvae take up BTI through food intake to their body. BTI damages the digestive tract of the larvae. Thereby the food intake of the larvae is interrupted and it will die in the larva stage. BTI is available as liquid, powder, granules and tablets.
TYPES OF FORMULATIONS
Encapsulated pesticides / cap suspensions (CS) – The active ingredient is contained in an extremely small capsule. The capsules are suspended in a liquid. This formulation is mixed with water. The active ingredient is released controlled and slowly.
Emulsions (EW) – organic solvents are replaced totally or partly by water. Stable aqueous emulsions of water-insoluble organic pesticides are formed by mixing the pesticide with an aqueous dispersion.
Emulsive concentrates (EC) – are liquid formulations in which the active ingredient has been dissolved in oil or other solvents and an emulsifier has been added so that the formulation can be mixed with water or oil.
Solutions and water soluble concentrates (S) – are liquids in their original state and are completely soluble in water or other organic solvents.
ULV concentrates – High concentrate liquids may be thought of as special EC formulations. They usually contain high concentration of active ingredient. Most are made to be mixed with water or oil. ULV concentrates are made to be used directly without dilution.
Water-disperse-granulates (WG) – dry particles, which are processed to granulates. These are flowable. Contrary to wettable powders, granulates have a high part of dispersing agents to ensure a fine distribution when poured into water.
Wettable powder (WP) – are dry powdered pesticide formulations. They contain wetting and dispersing agents. The formulation does not form true solution. Thus agitation is required in the solution tank to keep the formulation in suspension.