Worldwide flies fly play a significant role as hygiene pests. The most known the “Common House Fly” (Musca Domestica) is followed by the fruit flies (Drosophila spp.), of the “small housefly” (Fannia canicularis), and the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans).
The common housefly, a typical cosmopolitan hygiene pest, follows humans from their origin area around the entire globe into moderate zones. It settles everywhere, where rotting organic wastes, filth of mammals etc. offer sufficient life conditions. Beside dumping grounds and trash cans in large-scale catering establishments, livestock represent ideal growing possibilities.
The housefly does not damage humans and animal directly. Due to rich nutrition possibilities and rapid generation sequence, the fly population increases to mass and thereby becomes extremely nuisance. Moreover so far approx. 100 pathogens have been proven in flies. Therefore the risk of the disease transmission by flies, particularly by contamination of food, may not be underestimated. The housefly is vector of infections, e.g. Thyphus, Cholera, Salmonellosis, Infantile paralysis, Mouth and Feet Disease.
Blood sucking flies are particularly in hot climates of great importance as vectors carrying diseases. The most known example is the Sleeping Sickness (Trypanosomiasis), transferred by the Tsetse fly (Glossina spp.).
The stable fly, differs from the common housefly, especially due to its ectoparasitic life (sucks blood), bound to mammals (predominantly cattle and horses). This nuisance is responsible for the impairment of fact that the milk and fattening achievement. Moreover they transmit dangerous diseases, e.g. Anthrax, infectious anemia. They are also the intermediate hosts of different poultry tapeworms.
are counted to the group of the health pests, in particular all blood sucking pests. Moreover the pests, which bites etc. and causes pain to humans are defined in the same group. These health pests transfer different pathogens, i.e. they possess vector characteristic (Vector = carrier). They transfer diseases by unicellular plasmodia (malaria), through parasites (Filariose) or by viruses (Yellow fever, Dengue fever, West Nile fever, Rift Valley fever, blue tongue disease etc..) or bacteria (Tularaemia). Thus, mosquitoes belong in the warmer climates to the most important vectors, but become more and more important in moderate zones and carry diseases (e.g. summer minor illness, Chikungunia, West Nile Virus, etc.)
An effective protection against the diseases transferred by mosquitoes can be achieved only with the combination of different control methods and the elimination of breeding sites.
Mosquitoes of the kind AEDES transfer Dengue and yellow fever. The Dengue virus (a Flavivirus) is worldwide common and causes the most frequent arbovirus (Arthropod-borne viruses) diseases of humans (30 – 50 million cases per year).
Different species of CULEX transfer the West Nile fever. This Flavivirus is transferred also by the Aedes.
CULEX spp. is the carrier of the Japanese encephalitis. AEDES Aegypti, but also other species of Mosquitos are vector for Chikungunya.
The MALARIA is an additional disease transferred by mosquitoes. The species acting as malaria vector is the Anopheles and contains more than 40 kinds. According to data of the WHO more than 1 million humans die from malaria and over 300 millions get sick every year.
ANOPHELES is dawn and night-active, preferentially common in the subtropics and the Tropics. The oviposition takes place depending upon species in oxygen-rich, slowly flowing, but also, in temporary, standing waters.
The spreading of the vectors (Aedes and Culex) is increasingly favoured by the living conditions of men. Clogged gutters, water containers, old car tires and others, which are filled with water temporarily offer ideal possibilities to mosquito, whose larvae develop in small standing waters.
Carrier of the Leishmaniosis, is the sand fly (Phlebotomen). In moderate climate zones Leishmaniosis is regarded as a tropical infection and known as travel-medical problem. However it is not considered that Leishmaniosen occur also in the Mediterranean area, and that sand fly were already discovered in Germany, too. The rising number of travellers to epidemic zones increases the number of the imported Leishmaniosis.
Worldwide approx.12 million people are infected with Leishmania. About 350 million humans live with the daily risk to get infect with the parasites transmitted by the sand fly.
- Bow mite
- Brass beetle
- Carpet beetle
- Clothes Moth
- Fur beetle
- white-shouldered house moth
- Bean beetle
- Bread beetle
- Cigarette beetle
- Corn moth
- Drug store beetle
- Fig Moth
- Flour beetle
- Flour moth
- Grain Borer
- Grain moth
- Meal Moth
- Mites (dif. species)
- Rice flour beetle
- Rice moth
- Rice weevil
- Seed beetle (dif. species)
- Seed moth
- Skin beetle
- Spider beetle (dif. species)
- wounded-tree beetle
VECTOR PESTS, NUISANCE
- Beetles (many species)
- Lice (head-, clothes-, crap louse)